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Selasa, 02 Agustus 2011

Memory types

Selasa, 02 Agustus 2011
Memory is the ability to register, retain and recall a wide range of information such as thoughts, sensations, experiences and knowledge. Some aspects of memory remain relatively intact with age while others decline.
Short-term memory consists of two components called primary and working memory. Primary memory involves holding small amounts of information for a short amount of time, such as remembering a new phone number long enough to write it down. Primary memory remains relatively intact with age. By contrast, working memory, which requires briefly holding and manipulating information, declines.For instance, this ability is required to repeat digits in reverse (e.g., 4, 9, 7 backwards is 7, 9, 4).
Semantic memory is knowledge of facts and meanings of words. This type of memory does not require a reference to time. Generally, decline in semantic memory is negligible.
The type of memory that deals with remembering how to perform a motor skill such as riding a bicycle is called procedural memory. Overall, decline in this area is minimal.
Long-term, or episodic, memory is a unique form of recall because it deals with acquiring and retrieving information from a particular place at a certain time. Remembering what you had for breakfast today or what you did on your 21st birthday are examples of episodic memory. Episodic memory peaks in young adulthood, so it is not uncommon for the elderly to remember information from that period of their lives. Long-term memory declines slowly over time.
Memory problems associated with aging are likely due to difficulty with both encoding (registering the message into memory) and retrieval. Older adults are generally less precise in encoding new information, and retrieval is slowed. Overall, cognitive decline in the elderly is subtle and more evident in laboratory tests, in which the limits are tested beyond what is typically required for everyday functioning. Humans are remarkable in their ability to adapt and compensate for deficits. Further, evidence shows that cognitive training can conserve and improve memory, concentration and problem solving. In the largest study of its kind, independent adults aged 65 to 94 who had no cognitive problems received training for two hours a week for five weeks on tasks related to everyday living. The intervention resulted in improvement in memory, concentration and problem-solving skills. These findings hold the promise that training applied to specific tasks such as using medication and managing finances may benefit older adults.
Gradual physical and cognitive decline is inevitable with age. The health care provider must keep this in mind in order to accurately assess and identify problems in each individual. Likewise, each elderly patient also must be assessed for strengths that, when tapped, can promote health, satisfaction and happiness in later years.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/mental-health-articles/memory-types-5084728.html#ixzz1Tr1sbTSR
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